Timothy Snyder traces the emergence of four rival modern nationalist ideologies from common medieval notions of citizenship. He presents the ideological innovations and ethnic cleansings that abetted the spread of modern nationalism but also examines recent statesmanship that has allowed national interests to be channeled toward peace.""A work of profound scholarship and considerable importance."--Timothy Garton Ash, St. Antony's College, University of Oxford""Timothy Snyder's style is a welcome reminder that history writing can be--indeed, ought to be--a literary pursuit."--Charles King, "Times Literary Supplement"""A brilliant and fascinating analysis of the subtleties, complexities, and paradoxes of the evolution of nations in Eastern Europe. It has major implications for all of us who want to understand the processes of state collapse and nation-building in the world."--Samuel P. Huntington, Harvard Academy for International and Area Studies""Snyder's ultimate query in this fresh and stimulating look at the path to nationhood is how the bitter experiences along the way, including the bitterest--ethnic cleansing--are to be overcome."--Robert Legvold, "Foreign Affairs"